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The English Channel from above

Django REST Framework & Channels

We’ve begun exploring some patterns for how to add WebSocket push notifications to what is otherwise a RESTful API. This means, for us, using Django REST Framework and Django Channels in concert.

A ways back, Tom Christie, the creator of Django REST Framework (DRF), said:

I think the biggest thing missing for folks ATM is probably just a lack of tutorials or blog posts on using Channels and REST framework together.

Tom Christie

I realized that’s exactly what we’re working on lately at OddBird, so I thought I’d write up an in-progress report. I’m not at all convinced that this is the best way, but it’s what seems to be working so far.

First, DRF. I’ll just touch briefly on this, assuming that you’re already familiar with it. If you’re not, their own documentation is better than any summary I can offer here. We’ve made a pretty traditional RESTful API with it, keeping the endpoints flat, with minimal server-side logic mostly encapsulated in the serializers.

Just so we’re on the same page, the endpoints look a bit like this:

GET /api/foo
POST /api/foo
GET /api/foo/:id
PUT /api/foo/:id
DELETE /api/foo/:id

And the code is organized like this:


(For something that I’m not distributing as a library, I like to keep the tests parallel to the code and within the same tree; I find it makes it easier to work with the tests that pertain to the code you’re touching as you work on it. If I’m writing a library, I root the tests in a different tree, but still with parallel structure to the code; this makes it easier to exclude them on an install.)

Inside those files, we mostly have simple declarative use of DRF. Follow their tutorial if you want to get that set up.

We use pytest for all our Python tests, and a require 100% test coverage. Because of this, we can’t just skip anything that’s “too hard” to test, so I will talk a bit about our testing setup later.

Now Channels. I don’t encounter people as familiar with it as I do with DRF, so I’ll walk through how we set it up a little more. It’s not too bad, but it is different than you may be used to from basic Django.

First, you need to move from using WSGI to ASGI, which is “basically WSGI, but async”. This means changing your server process from gunicorn (or whatever you use) to something like Daphne, changing your project.wsgi module to project.asgi (as described in the Channels docs), adding a routing module and a consumers module, and adjusting your settings appropriately.

At this stage, you won’t yet have anything in consumers, nor much in routing. routing can look like this:

from channels.routing import ProtocolTypeRouter

application = ProtocolTypeRouter({
    # (http->django views is added by default)

Yep, that’s basically an empty ProtocolTypeRouter. We’re just first making sure we don’t break anything with the transition to ASGI, and that ProtocolTypeRouter correctly wires HTTP to Django.

Once that’s all done and you’ve confirmed that everything’s still working, you can start to add in the wiring for WebSockets.

Let’s talk a bit about architecture before we dive into implementation.

As we’re using it, Channels primarily drives WebSockets to push notifications to the client. We’ve opted to simplify the client’s job by having one endpoint that it can call to subscribe to any object it wants, using the payload it sends to validate and set up that subscription. So the client sends the following data to wss://server.domain/ws/notifications/:

  "model": "app.label",
  "id": "123ABC"

The model is something like foo.Foo, using the syntax apps.get_model expects. The id is the HashID of the model instance in question. (We use HashIDs everywhere we can, to avoid leaking information through consecutive ID numbers.)

The server will then decide if the requesting user can subscribe to that model, and start sending them updates over that WebSocket if so.

On the server’s side of things, we have a Consumer object that handles a bunch of WebSocket events, and, when appropriate, adds a particular socket connection to a named Group. Elsewhere in the server logic, we send events to that Group when the model changes, and all subscribed sockets will receive a serialization of the model with the changes.

(Since we’re using React on the front-end for this project, we’re also sending a value that happens to map to the Redux event names we’re using, but that sort of tight coupling may not match your needs.)

OK, but what does that Consumer look like?

from channels.generic.websocket import AsyncJsonWebsocketConsumer

class NotificationConsumer(AsyncJsonWebsocketConsumer):
    async def connect(self):
        # We're always going to accept the connection, though we may
        # close it later based on other factors.
        await self.accept()

    async def notify(self, event):
        This handles calls elsewhere in this codebase that look

            channel_layer.group_send(group_name, {
                'type': 'notify',  # This routes it to this handler.
                'content': json_message,

        Don't try to directly use send_json or anything; this
        decoupling will help you as things grow.
        await self.send_json(event["content"])

    async def receive_json(self, content, **kwargs):
        This handles data sent over the wire from the client.

        We need to validate that the received data is of the correct
        form. You can do this with a simple DRF serializer.

        We then need to use that validated data to confirm that the
        requesting user (available in self.scope["user"] because of
        the use of channels.auth.AuthMiddlewareStack in routing) is
        allowed to subscribe to the requested object.

        serializer = self.get_serializer(data=content)
        if not serializer.is_valid():
        # Define this method on your serializer:
        group_name = serializer.get_group_name()
        # The AsyncJsonWebsocketConsumer parent class has a
        # self.groups list already. It uses it in cleanup.
        # This actually subscribes the requesting socket to the
        # named group:
        await self.channel_layer.group_add(

     def get_serializer(self, *, data):
         # ... omitted for brevity. See

And now you’ll want to add some stuff to your routing module, too:

from django.urls import path

from channels.auth import AuthMiddlewareStack
from channels.routing import ProtocolTypeRouter, URLRouter

from .consumers import NotificationConsumer

websockets = URLRouter([

application = ProtocolTypeRouter({
    # (http->django views is added by default)
    "websocket": AuthMiddlewareStack(websockets),

There are a couple more pieces. We need to actually send updates when a model changes!

We separate out those concerns. We add a notifications module with the appropriate functions to wrap up the data and send it over the channels layer, and then we call out to those functions in the models’ save methods.

First, the notifications module: we define an async function that will build and send an appropriately-shaped object to the appropriate group on the channel layer. This is part of our API, and the output of all the helper functions here should be documented for anyone who consumes this API.

from channels.layers import get_channel_layer
from .serializers import FooSerializer

async def update_foo(foo):
    serializer = FooSerializer(foo)
    group_name = serializer.get_group_name()
    channel_layer = get_channel_layer()
    content = {
        # This "type" passes through to the front-end to facilitate
        # our Redux events.
        "type": "UPDATE_FOO",
    await channel_layer.group_send(group_name, {
        # This "type" defines which handler on the Consumer gets
        # called.
        "type": "notify",
        "content": content,

And then our models relies on three things: an override in the save method, the FieldTracker from django-model-utils, and calling the update method from notifications wrapped in asgiref.sync.async_to_sync. This looks like:

from django.db import models
# Using FieldTracker from django-model-utils helps you only send
# updates when something actually changes.
from model_utils import FieldTracker
from asgiref.sync import async_to_sync

class Foo(models.Model):
    tracker = FieldTracker(fields=("bar",))
    bar = models.CharField(max_length=100)

    def save(self, *args, **kwargs):
        ret = super().save(*args, **kwargs)
        has_changed = self.tracker.has_changed("bar")
        if has_changed:
            # This is the wrapper that lets you call an async
            # function from inside a synchronous context:
        return ret

Testing async code with pytest is best done with the pytest-asyncio package. This allows you to write tests that are themselves async functions, if you use the @pytest.mark.asyncio marker on them. The Channels docs have some more details on how to test consumers this way.

The one caution I can offer is be sure to read from your consumer at each point where you expect it to have new data, or your tests may fall down with hard-to-diagnose timeout errors. So your tests will look a little like this:

connected, _ = await communicator.connect()
assert connected

await communicator.send_json_to({
    "model": "as.Appropriate",
    "id": str(,
assert await communicator.receive_nothing()

await some_notification_async_function()
response = await communicator.receive_json_from()
assert response == {
    # ... whatever you expect

await communicator.disconnect()

This is a work in progress, of course. As we iron out the kinks, I intend to wrap up the easily isolated pieces of logic into a package we can distribute. I think that this will involve a particular Consumer, a serializer mixin, a model mixin, and a particular notifications module.

One particular problem we’ve found, and not yet solved, is what happens when you change a serializer based on the requesting user. For example, if you want to only show a restricted version of the User unless it is the user requesting their own information, how do we handle this when serializing for the websocket? I don’t have a good answer yet.

Let us know if you try this, or have ideas for improvements! This is new ground for me, and I’d love to have some different perspectives on it.

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